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It is demonstrated that not only Confucianism, but also Legalism contributed to the shaping and the development of the theory of governing the state. The unique characteristics of these two philosophical systems can be identified in the political strategies of China nowadays, especially in the biotech super fat burner 120 fila atsiliepimai of its aspirations to gain the status of a global power in the modern world.

Key-words: governing, state, Confucianism, Legalism, ethics, law.

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Lucrarea de fa are drept obiectiv discutarea concepiei chineze despre statul ideal, aa cum a fost ea elaborat n perioada clasic, precum i modul n care este valorificat n lumea contemporan, reflectnd o viziune specific asupra omului i societii.

Se demonstreaz faptul c nu numai confucianismul, ci i legismul au contribuit la conturarea i dezvoltarea teoriei referitoare la guvernarea statului. Caracteristicile unice ale acestor dou sisteme filozofice pot fi identificate n strategiile politice ale Chinei n zilele noastre, n special n contextul definirii aspiraiilor sale de a dobndi statutul de putere global n lumea modern.

Cuvinte-cheie: guvernare, stat, Confucianism, Legism, etic, lege. Premises and Objectives During the last decades, the problem of analyzing and understanding the rapid economic development of a series of countries in East Asia, as well as Chinas ascension and ambition to become a modern state and a global power brought into discussion various social and cultural factors which could be held responsible in this respect.

It is generally agreed that Confucianism played a significant role not only in the evolution of China, but such countries as Singapore and Taiwan which are often labeled as the little tigers.

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As well they share common characteristics due to their social cohesion, biotech super fat burner 120 fila atsiliepimai and authoritarian governments and such features are considered to originate in the Confucian system of thought.

Confucianism is a philosophy and an ethical system deeply rooted in the classical culture, with a history of more than years.

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Regarded either as an ideology, as a tradition or as a cultural practice, it has faced different changes up to its transformation into a quasi-official ideology in the late s. Nevertheless, it remained one of the most important forces that have contributed to the molding of the Chinese state, which is in full process of modernization and development nowadays.

The aim of this paper is to discuss the way in which China built the model of the ideal state in the classical period, setting its basis and its fundamental coordinates which have been perpetuated along the centuries up to the contemporary period.

The revival of the Confucian thought system in the last few decades has brought to light not only moral and ethical values which have never ceased to be vital and to influence peoples life and social interactions, but also the specific perspective upon the role and structure of the state.

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In a period in which a new global order is under formation, a specific approach of the state along with these Confucian values seem to provide the recipe for Chinas ascension and for its success in forging modernity. Traditional Conception of a Harmonious Society Goals and Perspectives As a philosophical system which emerged in a period of crisis with the decay of the Zhou dynasty1Confucianism set goals which meant individual and general salvation. One of the goals and by far of the greatest interest for those who represented the state authority was to bring order to the state and thereby to promote peace throughout the world.

Кстати, по замыслу Ричарда наш путь пролегает через второе Они все ждали и ждали - в холодной тьме. Время от времени один из двух роботов отправлялся ко входу, но часовой всегда был на месте.

In a brief presentation, Confucianism is the philosophical system holding that people should cultivate their minds and virtues through lifelong learning and participation in rituals, that they should treat their family members according to the norms of filial piety, respect the superiors and rulers. The intellectuals above all should devote themselves to politics and education in order to promote the Way and build the ideal society.

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Confucius basically built his system of thought on the order or rites li and social values developed in the early Zhou dynasty. Pondering on the social problems and political disorder of his time, Confucius reached the conclusion that the source of all those problems was weakening of rites and ethical norms because the powerful feudal lords had become self-centered, arrogant, corrupted and did not accept the constraints of rites anymore.

Confucius chose to revive the Zhou rite system by giving it a new ethical dimension which sustained the argument that the return to this system was the key to put away disorder.

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He made benevolence and humane spirit the core element of his philosophy, which influenced the unfurling of rites and gave them a humanistic value. Thus, in Confucius conception rites are not simple external regulations, which constrain peoples behaviour and distribute roles and duties, but they are a necessary component of a moral portrait.

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The ideal of such a person is the attainment of ren humaneness the highest virtue, the perfect expression of humanity which manifests in various degrees, from the rigorous self-examination and self-control to the love and care for the others. Therefore, ren induces a humanistic spirit to a rigid system that otherwise would have been devoid of any preoccupation for anything else but hierarchy and duty.

The solution that Confucius proposed was to revive the rites by founding them on the stronger basis of humaneness. It is the duty of the father to preside over the family, in the proper manner, that is to make sure that the physical requirements of its members are satisfied, but also to guarantee the right environment in which everybody is led to the direction of moral goodness and virtue.

There are also elements of criticism of the educational system, demonstrating the insufficient applicability of theoretical knowledge through empirical programmes, but universities, in general, including private ones, seek to find the best solutions of adapting the university curricula to the needs of the community and organizations. The Romanian Private Higher Education has a special role in the evolution of society, and the statistical data employed point out to this contribution through the simple qualitative analysis of the regions of development and of the share of private universities — in areas with the most intense economic development where the most private higher educations institutions appeared, and reversely.

Therefore, the family becomes the very place where the individual is morally integrated in a system that perpetuates such values and rites. Every relation in the family offers its members the opportunities to grow in the direction of self-attainment by learning, respect for the others and practice of rites.

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In many ways, Confucianism modeled its understanding of the state on the representation of the family. The ruler is regarded as the parent of the people and that reinforces an organic view of a society as an enormous family, with the ruler as the pater familias.

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  • Volum China | Confucianism | Confucius

Like in a family, both the people and the ruler have obligations and duties that they must fulfill. In Analects, Confucius underlines that a filial son must never disobey2, as the peoples fundamental obligation is to submit to the ruler who represents the cosmically ordained authority.

On the other hand, each individual holds his expectations concerning the states protection in several areas: the state should ensure peoples most basic needs of food, shelter, order in such a way that the physical comfort is guaranteed. People also expect that the state has a just administration of their affairs so that their interests are protected.

The ruler, by his moral conduct and judgement, should cultivate the proper environment in which his subjects can progress and develop their moral qualities.

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Zhou dynasty B. This period was divided into Western Zhou B. All these build the image of the ideal state, in which both people and ruler have their own duties that they should gladly fulfill. According to Confucian philosophy, adherence to rites and ren was essential for regulating the social system, imposing order and harmony.

Нельзя сказать, чтобы Орел об этом умалчивал, но Святой Микель держался более участливо и дружелюбно, словно бы Господь послал его руководить мной, быть наставником Николь поглядела на Майкла, потом на Симону и снова на Майкла. Лицо того словно светилось.

Not only Confucius, but also his most remarkable followers, Mencius and Xunzi, considered that the ruler had the duty to practice rites and ren, that could lead to a benevolent policy. By setting peoples welfare and well-being ahead of his own interest, the ruler would determine people to follow the Way and achieve harmonious social relationships and a well-ordered society.

Confucius was the first to attempt at elaborating a theory which exceeded the understanding of the state as an administrative tool.

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He claimed that at the basis of the state there was a set of ethical and moral rules, generically called Dao the Waywhich could ensure the law and order of the country. In this way, Confucius provides profilul de pierdere în greutate ethical character to the state as a form of social organization.

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It is essential that the ruler offers a model of exemplary behavior he has moral authority, obeys tradition and practices the rites, the result of his action being moral order and harmony in the state. By setting the duties of the ruler, Confucius defined the essence of the humane ren government.